Lazistan Sanjak fell within two days. During the Balkan Wars production ceased due to poor exportation and fuel supplies.[58]. Özhan Öztürk claims that Ozinis means "flat place" in Laz language and Hurşidabat means "City of the Sun" in Persian/Ottoman language. As a colony Trapezous initially paid tribute to Sinope, but early banking (money-changing) activity is suggested occurring in the city already in the 4th century BCE, according to a silver drachma coin from Trapezus in the British Museum, London. [55] Poultry farming was also popular in Trabzon. The Black Death arrived at the city in September 1347, probably via Kaffa. In some places the snow can stay on the ground during summer months. 4,7 sur 5 étoiles 67. These works later found their way to western Europe, together with the astrolabe. After the region was conquered in 1461, the Fatih Medrese (1462), Hatuniye Medrese (1515), İskender Pasha Medrese (1529) and Hamza Pasha Medrese (1543) were established as important medreses (educational centers; some of them within külliye complexes) of the period. Sericulture was seen in the area before 1914. [43] Many adult Turkish males left the city out of fear for reprisals, even though governor Chrysantos included them in his administration. The city's top sports club, Trabzonspor, was until 2010 the only Turkish football club outside İstanbul to win the Süper Lig (six times), which was previously (until Trabzonspor's first championship title in the 1975–76 season) won only by the "Big Three" clubs of Istanbul, namely Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş. New churches and mosques were built in the second half of the 19th century, as well as the first theater, public and private printing houses, multiple photo-studios and banks. Topal Osman's men would eventually murder parliamentarian Şükrü for his criticism of the nationalist government of Mustafa Kemal. As of 1911, the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey signed an agreement to develop a harbor at the port. The temperatures may drop below -30 °C (-22 °F). Due to Trabzonspor's success, the decades-old term "Big Three" which defined the most successful football clubs in Turkey had to be modified into the "Big Four". Pontic Greek has been spoken in the region since early antiquity. "Trapezus" redirects here. International schools were also established in the city; An American school, five French schools, a Persian school and a number of Italian schools were opened in the second half of the 19th century [36]. The total area is 22.4% plateau and 77.6% hills. Caucasian and Eastern Anatolian influences are especially evident in Hagia Sophia. Trabzon is famous throughout Turkey for its anchovies called hamsi, which are the main meal in many restaurants in the city. In the first half of the 19th century, Trebizond even became the main port for Persian exports. [5] It was initially a sanjak before gaining the status of eyalet, and finally became a vilayet in 1868. A. Later Greek authors mentioned the Macrones and the Chalybes as native peoples. Choniades brought with him the works of Shams al-Din al-Bukhari,[30] Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini from Tabriz, which he translated into Greek. Minthrion to the east of the old town were devoted to the Persian-Anatolian Greek god Mithra. Guide des vacances à l 'île de la Réunion : Vodič za one koji žele provesti godišnji odmor na otoku; Poslednja izmjena na dan 16 august 2019, u 17:23 č. Sadržaj je dostupan pod CC BY-SA 3.0 osim ako je drugačije navedeno. In the city itself, one can find a hub of shops, stalls and restaurants surrounding the Meydan, a square in the center of the city, which includes a tea garden. During the Queen's rule, sizeable groups of immigrating Georgians moved to Trabzon where they continue to preserve their native tongue. "[19] An inscription above the eastern gate of the city, commemorated the reconstruction of the civic walls following an earthquake at Justinian's expense. Sahəsi 4.662 km²-dir. Uzungöl is known for its natural environment and scenery. meglévő navigációs sablonok egységesítése, idegen nyelvű szavak törlése ; hiányzó navigációs sablonok elkészítése ; hiányzó fő nemzetközi repterek megírása Wikipedia® est une marque déposée de la Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , organisation de bienfaisance régie par le paragraphe 501(c)(3) du code fiscal des États-Unis. Trabzon Province has a total area of 4,685 square kilometres (1,809 sq mi) and is bordered by the provinces of Rize, Giresun and Gümüşhane. The Turkish name of the city is Trabzon. [10] Western geographers and writers used many spelling variations of the name throughout the middle ages. [33] However, a significant portion of the local Christians were Islamized by the end of the 17th century - especially those outside the city - according to a research by Prof. Halil İnalcık on the Ottoman tax books (tahrir defterleri). Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows. The efforts of the pro-Ottoman, anti-nationalist population of Trebizond only postponed the inevitable, because the national governments of Turkey and Greece agreed to a mutual forced population exchange. [citation needed] A very similar dialect is spoken by a community of about 400 speakers, descendants of Christians from the Of valley now living in Greece in the village of Nea Trapezounta (New Trebizond), today part of Katerini, Central Macedonia. The people of the eastern Black Sea region are also known for their wit and sense of humour; many jokes in Turkey are told about the natives of the Black Sea region Karadeniz fıkraları (Black Sea jokes). Many characteristics of the city can be recognized: the two streams dividing the central core, the separately walled quarters, the Genoese town next to the winter harbour, Haghia Sophia at the bottom right, and, The first city-view of Trebizond, published by. The Empire of Trebizond was formed after Georgian expedition in Chaldia,[26] commanded by Alexios Komnenos a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople. As part of the university Gregory Choniades opened a new academy of astronomy, which housed the best observatory outside Persia. The young empire required new buildings to honor its name. [59][60] There are also descendants of Circassian muhajiris[61] in the city, as well as smaller number of Laz people, Muslim Greeks (Romeyka-speakers) and Armenians (Hemshin). La Éducation dans L'Réunion. CDN$ 29.92 (10 used & new offers) ÉTRANGE ET LE MERVEILLEUX EN TERRES D'ISLAM (L') May 2 2001. by COLLECTIF. [4] Some of the Silk Road caravans carrying goods from Asia stopped at the port of Trebizond, where the European merchants purchased these goods and carried them to the port cities of Europe with ships. [70] Very little has been written on the Turkification of the area. Heath W. Lowry's[71] work with Halil İnalcık on Ottoman tax books (Tahrir Defteri)[72] provides detailed demographic statistics for the city of Trabzon and its surrounding areas during the Ottoman period. As of 1920, the port at Trabzon was considered "the most important of the Turkish Black Sea ports" by the British. As with other major cities on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, Trabzon is situated right on the waterfront, thus allowing for the additional 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) enough to surpass the threshold to be classified as subtropical. [24] Supporting Comnena's assertion, Simon Bendall has identified a group of rare coins he believes were minted by Gabras and his successors. A la Fnac, vous trouverez de nombreuses idées de vacances pour l’été comme pour l’hiver, que vous pourrez glisser dans votre valise ou votre sac à dos. It is an international airport with more than 2m passengers per year (incoming, outgoing and transit). Xenophon's force resolved this in the rebels' favor, and so in Trebizond's interest. The History Of Greece From Its Conquest By The Crusaders To Its Conquest By The Turks And Of The Empire Of Trebizond, 1204–1461, By George Finlay. [63] The main language of these ethnic groups is Turkish. Together with Persian goods, Italian traders brought stories about the city to Western Europe. La moins chère est en avion à Amsterdam Schiphol et train, ce qui coûte 569€. They were so influential that Bessarion was considered for the position of Pope, and George could survive as an academic even after being defamed for his heavy criticism of Plato. During World War II shipping activity was limited because the Black Sea had again become a war zone. Trabzon's regional cuisine is traditionally reliant on fish, especially hamsi (fresh European Anchovy similar to the British Sprat or American Smelt). Fondée au V e siècle av. Trebizond played a mythical role in European literature of the late middle-ages and the Renaissance. Among others, Cemal Azmi was sentenced to death in absentia. Ronald Grigor Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition (December 1994), Indiana University Press, Calzolari, V. "The Armenian translation of the Greek Neoplatonic Works" in, Robert W. Edwards, “The Garrison Forts of the Pontos: A Case for the Diffusion of the Armenian Paradigm,”. In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it is written as طربزون. This trade provided a source of revenue to the state in the form of custom duties, or kommerkiaroi, levied on the goods sold in Trebizond. [39], In July 1915, most of the adult male Armenians of the city were marched off south in five convoys, towards the mines of Gümüşhane, never to be seen again. It traded as far as Tabriz and Mosul. Linna seisukohalt on väga tähtis Musta mere sadam, peale selle asub seal Trabzoni ülikool ja lennujaam.. Ajalugu. A number of European consulates were opened in the city due to its importance in regional trade and commerce. [16] The emperor visited the city in the year 129 as part of his inspection of the eastern border (limes). In Spanish the name was known from chivalric romances and Don Quixote. Because of its similarity to trápala and trapaza,[11] trapisonda acquired the meaning "hullabaloo, imbroglio"[12], Before the city was founded as a Greek colony the area was dominated by Colchian (Caucasian) and Chaldian (Anatolian) tribes. Trabzon's Bazaar District offers interesting shopping opportunities on ancient narrow streets, continuing from Kunduracılar Street from the Meydan (town square). As a result of the general development of the country, Trabzon has developed its economic and commercial life. The character Temel, a universal buffoon figure found in many cultures, forms an important part of the Turkish oral tradition. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Pontic Greek speakers,[2] though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language. Avec FedEx, choisissez un service d'expédition correspondant à vos besoins. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. Renowned former players of Trabzonspor include Şenol Güneş, Lars Olsen and Shota Arveladze. Our payment security system encrypts your information during transmission. At the same time the Muslim population of the city, remembering their protection under Greek governor Crhysantos, protested the arrest of prominent Christians. Its demographic legacy endured for several centuries after the Ottoman conquest in 1461, as a substantial number of Greek Orthodox inhabitants, usually referred to as Pontic Greeks, continued to live in the area during Ottoman rule, up until 1923, when they were deported to Greece. Atatürk selected his presidential guards from Trabzon and the neighbouring city of Giresun because of their fierce fighting ability and their loyalty. The coastal region between the city and the Russian frontier was the site of key battles between the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Trebizond Campaign, part of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I. [76] While similar to Russian Cossack dances in terms of vividness, the Trabzon folk dance is probably indigenous to the eastern Black Sea region, which has an impressive variety of folk music. [59][62] Local Turks are mostly of Chepni Turkmen origin. [4]Districts inland: Tonya, Düzköy, Şalpazarı, Maçka, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, Hayrat and Çaykara. To secure their part of the Black Sea trade, the Genoese bought the coastal fortification "Leonkastron", just west of the winter harbour, in the year 1306. Cyrus the Great added the city to the Achaemenid Empire, and was possibly the first ruler to consolidate the eastern Black Sea region into a single political entity (a satrapy). Especially Alexios II of Trebizond and his grandson Alexios III were patrons of the arts and sciences. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia.Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. 8 апреля в среду- в 18 часов таинство Соборования. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest average minimum temperature is around 5 °C (41 °F) in January. The water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 °C (46 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F) throughout the year. ), Trapezunt (German), Trebisonda (Sp. Trabzon (în greacă: Τραπεζοῦς Trapezûs, Τραπεζούντα Trapezúnta, "Tramtara" (Laz), sau "Trabzani"), este un oraș din nord-estul Turciei, situat pe coasta Mării Negre.Este capitala provinciei Trabzon. [25] Although he was killed by the Turks in 1098, other members of his family continued his de facto independent rule into the next century. [31] Scientists and philosophers of Trebizond were among the first western thinkers to compare contemporaneous theories with classical Greek texts. Most are Sunni Muslim, while there are some recent converts in the city[citation needed] and possibly a few Crypto-Christians in the Tonya/Gümüşhane area to the southwest of the city. Early Christians sought refuge in the Pontic Mountains south of the city, where they established Vazelon Monastery in 270 AD and Sumela Monastery in 386 AD. The current ethnic background of the people of Trabzon is mostly Turkish. ), Trapisonda, Tribisonde, Terabesoun, Trabesun, Trabuzan, Trabizond and Tarabossan. ), Trapesunta (It. Atatürk Alani at Meydan square in Taksim (central Trabzon). We don’t share your credit card details with third-party sellers, and we don’t sell your information to others. At the same time, thousands of Muslim refugees from the Caucasus arrived in the city, especially after 1864, in what is known as the Circassian genocide. During the reign of Sultan Bayezid II, his son Prince Selim (later Sultan Selim I) was the Sanjak-bey of Trabzon, and Selim I's son Suleiman the Magnificent was born in Trabzon in 1494. Écoutez Les vingt plus belles chansons de La Réunion (Ile de La Réunion) par Various Artists sur Deezer. It is possible that the majority of the population of Trabzon and Rize (and other ancient Greek colonies in the Pontus region) — except up to the time of the Chepni Turk immigration waves — consisted of indigenous Caucasian tribes (the Colchians and the Laz) who had been partly Hellenized religiously and linguistically. Among these migrants were the grandparents of Bob Dylan and Greek politicians and artists. in village structure, house types, and pastoral techniques) between the Eastern Black Sea coast and the areas in the Caucasus proper.[74]. Tadevossian, Trebizond from the south by Godfrey Vigne, In 1901 the harbour was equipped with cranes by Stothert & Pitt of Bath in England. Trabzon hosted the First Edition of the Black Sea Games in July 2007 and the 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival. Trabzon's summers are warmer than oceanic classifications, but the narrow fluctuations in temperature render a significant influence from the sea. Historically the city was a center of Greek culture and education and from 1683 to 1921, a teachers' college operated known as Phrontisterion of Trapezous, which provided a major impetus for the rapid expansion of Greek education throughout the region. In 1920, Trabzon produced linen cloth, silver filagree, tanning and small amounts of cotton, silk and wool. Cave churches of Agia Anna (Little Ayvasıl), Sotha (St. John), Agios Theodoros, Agios Konstantinos, Agios Christophoros, Agia Kyriakí, Agios Michail and Panagia Tzita churches. The original Greek (and in some regions Armenian) speakers imposed features from their mother language into the Turkish spoken in the region. In 1598 it became the capital of its own province - the Eyalet of Trebizond - which in 1867 became the Vilayet of Trebizond. The city still has a sizable community of Greek-speaking Muslims, most of whom are originally from the vicinities of Tonya, Sürmene and Çaykara. La plus rapide est en avion à Dusseldorf, ce qui prendrait 16½ heures. The local dialect developed along its own lines and is today partly intelligible to speakers of Standard Greek. During the Turkish War of Independence several Christian Pontic Greek communities in the Trebizond vilayet rebelled against the new army of Mustafa Kemal (notably in Bafra and Santa), but when nationalist Greeks came to Trabzon to proclaim revolution, they were not received with open arms by the local Pontic Greek population of the city. It is performed by men, women, the young and elderly alike; in festivities, local weddings and harvest times. Trabzon, ou Trébizonde (d'après son nom antique), est une ville de Turquie, préfecture de la province du même nom, située au bord de la mer Noire, dans la région de la mer Noire.Capitale culturelle et historique de la région de la mer noire (karadeniz) . The city received the status of civitas libera, extending it judicial autonomy and the right to mint its own coin. Histoire. The Mongol siege of Baghdad in 1258 diverted more trade caravans towards the city. Other sites of the city include: Fatih Mosque (originally the Panagia Khrysokephalos Church), Yeni Cuma Mosque (originally the Agios Eugenios Church), Nakip Mosque (originally the Agios Andreas Church), Hüsnü Köktuğ Mosque (originally the Agios Elevtherios Church), İskender Pasha Mosque, Semerciler Mosque, Çarşı Mosque, Gülbahar Hatun Mosque and Türbe (commissioned by Sultan Selim I), Kalepark (originally Leonkastron). An important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. After the defeat of Mithridates in 66 BCE the city was first handed to the Galatians, but it was soon returned to the grandson of Mithradates, and subsequently became part of the new client Kingdom of Pontus. Orasul Trabzon a primit un rating de 3.5 / 5 de la clientii Direct Booking (1 opinii in perioada 30.05.2017 - 30.05.2017). Men and woman gathered for the funeral of an Armenian cleric. The "Horon" is a famous dance that is indigenous to the city and its surrounding area. Gjendet në arkipelagun Maskarehna rreth 700 km në lindje të Madagaskarit rreth 170 km në jug-perëndim të ishullit Mauritius, toka më e afërt. In Latin, Trabzon was called Trapezus, which is a latinization of its ancient Greek name. Many residents from the wider region (mostly Christians, but also some Jews and Greek or Turkish speaking Muslims) started to migrate to the Crimea and southern Ukraine, in search for farmland or employment in one of the booming cities along the northern and eastern coasts of the Black Sea. [67] It was stated by the ambassador that the Armenians, who were not well-liked by the Greeks, had a population large enough to support a resident bishop. Trabzon (Turkish pronunciation: , Romeika: Trapezounta), historically known as Trebizond in English, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. Ankara, 2011, "The Mint of Trebizond under Alexius I and the Gabrades", "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1222)", "Haber Yazdır : Trabzon'un fethi araştırmaları ve 15 ağustos 1461 – Of hayrat haberleri", The constitutional revolution of 1908 and its aftermath in Trabzon, "Image of an Atrocity: Ivan (Hovhannes) Aivazovsky's, "Massacre of Christians before Evacuation of Trebizond", Seattle City Council and Asia Minor – The articles of Herbert Adams Gibbons in the Christian Science Monitor, "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "File:Koppen-Geiger Map TUR present.svg - Wikipedia", "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri", "Trabzon, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)", Trabzon Şehrinin İslamlaşması ve Türkleşmesi 1461–1583, People and culture of Trabzon and Black sea region, "Turkish city grapples with violent record", "Suspects in Journalist's Killing Came From a Hotbed of Turkish Ultranationalist Sentiment",, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Black Sea port cities and towns in Turkey, Populated places established in the 8th century BC, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2011, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Georgian-language text, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Trapezian, Trapezuntine, Trebizonian, Trabzonlu, The "Atatürk Köşkü" is a villa built in 1890 by a local Greek merchant.

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